The first talks took place at the Franco-English peace conference in January 1783. Article 18 of these discussions provided that each country would give a commission “to discuss new reciprocal trade agreements”. In the hope that the trade agreement would be the first step towards the reconciliation process, the French lowered their tariffs in 1784 to a level set by Articles 8 and 9 of the Treaty of Utrecht. As a result, British exports to France increased significantly or, at the very least, were traded through legitimate channels instead of being smuggled onto the black market. In Britain, however, there has been no reciprocal reaction to French liberal policy. At the end of 1784, after the British had refused to respect the new standard of the French, France had no choice but to reinstall their customs duties banned before 1784. It was these failures that led William Pitt to appoint William Eden as negotiator of trade negotiations with the French in late 1785. The policy of mercantilism in Europe was slightly relaxed by a series of agreements between several nations that culminated in the Treaty of Eden of 1786. In addition to the renewal of the family pact by the Bourbon House in 1761, the French also opened some colonial ports to foreign trade in the same year. Twelve years later, the French government negotiated the Franco-Portuguese Agreement of 1773. In 1778, France signed the Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the young United States on a mutual trade basis, which violated British trade law; They also signed the Franco-American Alliance for Mutual Defense, in order to protect them, in case, as a result, a war broke out, which it did. MEPs must ratify the final agreement before the end of the year, failing which the UK will negotiate with the EU from 1 January under less lucrative WTO conditions. The treaty was not as well received in France as it was in England.
The French refuted the agreement following two central complaints; Like English crafts, French crafts feared being replaced by factory products made of English machinery at a lower cost. In addition, in France, French craftsmanship had more driving force than its English counterparts due to the famous triumph of British industrial goods over French industrial goods. Secondly, the French thought that their wines were still overtaxed compared to Portuguese wines. . . .